new_star Copyright

If you are using the figures for an assignment or project, you do not need to get copyright permission from the owner, but you do need to have an in text caption citation and a citation in your reference list. Graphs, charts, maps, drawings, collages, images and photographs are all examples of FIGURES.

If you are going to take/show your assignment or project off-campus to sell or exhibit your work, you will also need to get copyright permission from the owner of any figure you use.


Reference list citation of an image from a web page

Image citation

Reference list citation of an image with no title or date

No title

  • break the URL before the punctuation (. – / ). Do not activate the URL in your reference list.
  • if there is NO TITLE, right-mouse-click and “inspect element” or select “Properties” to see the file name; or enter a description in square brackets, for e.g. [Digital image].



If you use figures in your assignments, you will need an in text citation in the caption below the figure, and a reference list entry of the publication details of where you found the figure.

Graphs and chartsFigure 1. Pie chart of the survey results. Respondents were asked whether or not they liked the sauce known as “monkeygland sauce” as eaten at restaurants in Zimbabwe.

In the caption above, the figure is your own so no in text citation in the caption is necessary. In the caption below, for an example of a figure that is not your own, you need a caption in text citation as well as a citation in your reference list:

Figure 2. Photograph of the crowds during market day. Some thoughts on Zimbabwe (Other, 2008, p. 76).


Figures In Text Citations

…when looking at Figure 1, it becomes obvious…

…when looking at Figure 2 (Other, 2008, p. 76), you may notice…


Collage of images

Give the source of each image in the caption, separated by a semicolon:

Figure 3. Collage of four photographs arranged to represent the Mazoe brand. Adapted from Some thoughts on Zimbabwe (Other, 2008, p.76); More thoughts on Zimbabwe (Other, 2009, p. 46); Untitled image (Other, 2010, p. 26).


Here you need to include a Table number and a title (in italics) before the table, and a note below the table.

Table 1
Number of Snakes Seen on Daily Walks
Note. The number of snakes, poisonous and non-poisonous, as seen on the nature walks in the hills of the Eastern Highlands of Zimbabwe last week, 11 to 17 October 2010 (Plotkiss, 2010, p. 14).

In this Note you may also need to explain the table and abbreviations or symbols used, provide more information, or state where you found the information. For example:

Table 2

Note. Distances between the towns in Zimbabwe with the distances in kilometers shown in boldface. Adapted from Africa on a shoestring (Else et al., 2004, p. 24).

Table In Text Citations

…as shown in Table 2 (Else et al., 2004, p. 24), snakes are quite plentiful in Zimbabwe.


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