In Text Citations

For use in your assignments when QUOTING or PARAPHRASING.

Quoting

  • When using an author’s exact words, give the authors’ NAME, the YEAR the book was written, and the PAGE NUMBER. Use quotation marks.

Swaney (1999) states that being bitten by a Zimbabwean gaboon viper “means bye-bye unless antivenin is administered quickly” (p. 20).

OR

It is also stated that being bitten by a Zimbabwean gaboon viper “means bye-bye unless antivenin is administered quickly” (Swaney, 1999, p. 20).

  • If you are going to quote more than 40 words, INDENT the quote with no quotation marks.

Indenting paragraphs

Paraphrasing

  • When writing about another person’s ideas in your OWN WORDS, use the author’s name and the year the book was written.

Swaney (1999) warns tourists to be careful of the very poisonous gaboon viper sometimes found in the mountains in the east of Zimbabwe. In fact, if one is planning to walk anywhere, it would be best to carry a snake-bite kit!

OR

We would be wise to carry a snake-bite kit when walking in Zimbabwe, especially in the mountains in the east (Swaney, 1999).

No author?

Use the first few words of the title.

…cost of sodas (“Research and markets,” 2010).

…in the report Research and markets (2010).

CLICK HERE for more information on In Text Citations (pdf list).

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